Bishwanath Singh: Let us have a glimpse of Bhagwat Gita!It is known as Gita too that is a sacred Hindu scripture, considered among the most important texts in the history of literature and philosophy. The Bhagavad Gita comprises roughly 700 verses, and is a part of the Mahabharata.The content of the Gita is the conversation between Lord...... Krishna and Arjuna taking place on the battlefield before the start of the Kurukshetra war. Responding to Arjuna's confusion and moral dilemma about fighting his own cousins, Lord Krishna explains to Arjuna his duties as a warrior and prince and elaborates on different Yogic and Vedantic philosophies, with examples and analogies. This has led to the Gita often being described as a concise guide to Hindu theology and also as a practical, self-contained guide to life. During the discourse, Lord Krishna reveals His identity as the Supreme Being Himself (Svayam Bhagavan), blessing Arjuna with an awe-inspiring vision of His divine universal form.The direct audience to Lord Krishna’s discourse of the Bhagawata Gita are said to be Arjuna (addressee), Sanjay (using Divya Drishti gifted by Rishi Veda Vyasa) and Lord Hanuman (perched atop Arjuna’s chariot) and Barbarika, son of Ghatotghaj who also witnessed the complete eighteen days of action at Kurukhsetra. The Gita consists of eighteen chapters in total.They are as follows(1)Arjuna requests Krishna to move his chariot between the two armies. When Arjuna sees his relatives on the opposing army side of the Kurus, he loses morale and decides not to fight.(2)After asking Krishna for help, Arjuna is instructed that only the body may be killed as he was worried if it would become a sin to kill people (including his gurus and relatives), while the eternal self is immortal. Krishna appeals to Arjuna that, as a warrior, he has a duty to uphold the path of dharma through warfare.(3)Arjuna asks why he should engage in fighting if knowledge is more important than action. Krishna stresses to Arjuna that performing his duties for the greater good, but without attachment to results, is the appropriate course of action.(4)Krishna reveals that he has lived through many births, always teaching Yoga for the protection of the pious and the destruction of the impious and stresses the importance of accepting a guru.(5)Arjuna asks Krishna if it is better to forgo action or to act. Krishna answers that both ways may be beneficent, but that acting in Karma Yoga is superior.(6)Krishna describes the correct posture for meditation and the process of how to achieve Samādhi.(7)Krishna teaches the path of knowledge (Jnana Yoga).(8)Krishna defines the terms brahman, adhyatma, karma, atman, adhibhuta and adhidaiva and explains how one can remember him at the time of death and attain his supreme abode.(9)Krishna explains panentheism, "all beings are in me" as a way of remembering him in all circumstances.(10)Krishna describes how he is the ultimate source of all material and spiritual worlds. Arjuna accepts Krishna as the Supreme Being, quoting great sages who have also done so.(11)On Arjuna's request, Krishna displays his "universal form" (Viśvarūpa), a theophany of a being facing every way and emitting the radiance of a thousand suns, containing all other beings and material in existence.(12)Krishna describes the process of devotional service (Bhakti Yoga).(13)Krishna describes nature (prakrti), the enjoyer (purusha) and consciousness.(14)Krishna explains the three modes (gunas) of material nature.(15)Krishna describes a symbolic tree (representing material existence), its roots in the heavens and its foliage on earth. Krishna explains that this tree should be felled with the "axe of detachment", after which one can go beyond to his supreme abode.(16)Krishna tells of the human traits of the divine and the demonic natures. He counsels that to attain the supreme destination one must give up lust, anger and greed, discern between right and wrong action by evidence from scripture and thus act rightly.(17)Krishna tells of three divisions of faith and the thoughts, deeds and even eating habits corresponding to the three gunas.&(18)In conclusion, Krishna asks Arjuna to abandon all forms of dharma and simply surrender unto him. He describes this as the ultimate perfection of life. The greatScholar Dr. Radhakrishnan had said that the verse 11.55 is "the essence of bhakti" and the "substance of the whole teaching of the Gita".-He who does work for Me, he who looks upon Me as his goal, he who worships Me, free from attachment, who is free from enmity to all creatures, he goes to Me, O Pandava!.
Comment:Bishwanath Singh Let us pay our humble obeisance to the lotus feet of Lord Krishna who while responding to Arjuna's confusion and moral dilemma about fighting his own cousins,explains to Arjuna his duties as a warrior and prince and elaborates on different Yogic and Vedantic philosophies, with examples and analogies in this picture!