Bishwa Nath Singh
Let us remember very fondly that towering personality who was not only popular figure of our motherland but of whole of the world who had arisen to be a prominent leader of the Indian national liberation movement,; great statesman. and renowned architect of Modern India who had honor to serve India-his motherland as its first Prime Minister for seventeen long years besides one was often referred as Pandit Ji meaning thereby great scholar that he was as he had authored many books & articles of repute! He was none else than Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru whom we owe much. Let us have a glimpse on his exchequer career in brief!
(Photo of Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru)
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Bishwa Nath Singh:
Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru was born on Nov. 14, 1889, in his Allahabad; residence to Motilal Nehru & Swaroop Rani who had died on May 27, 1964, in New Delhi..He rose to be a prominent leader of the Indian national liberation movement, great ...statesman., renowned architect of Modern India and had honor to serve India-his motherland as its first Prime Minister for seventeen long years He was often referred as Pandit Ji meaning thereby great scholar that he was as he had authored many books & articles. He had his early education at home by well-reputed tutors. They were mainly English women. He was also tutored in Hindi and Sanskrit by an Indian teacher. After he was sixteen years of age, he was sent to Harrow and from there he went to Trinity College, Cambridge, pursuing an honors degree in natural science. After graduation, he took up law and became a barrister after two years’ of study at the Inner Temple in London. He returned to India and after four years, he married Kamala. The Nehru couple had a daughter Indira Priyadarshini, who later became Indira Gandhi after marrying Feroze Gandhi who had played an important role in Indian history and politics. On the professional front, although Nehru was qualified to be a Barrister, he was not very keen on pursuing the profession. It was the time when the nationalist movement was gaining momentum and Nehru was drawn towards the same. He met Mahatma Gandhi and he was flattered by Mahatma Gandhi’s concept of fighting the British without fear and hatred. The first meeting between the two great leaders was at the annual meeting of the Indian National Congress in Lucknow in 1916 and was greatly influenced by the ideals of Mahatma Gandhi.It was only after the First World War that Nehru began to be closely associated with the Congress Party. Nehru went to prison for the first time in the year 1921, when prominent Congress leaders were outlawed in some provinces. In the next twenty-four years, Nehru was detained in prison on eight occasions. He used his time in prison well. By reading & writing. He studied Karl Marx. Although he did not agree with Marx, but even though, the yardstick for his economic thinking was Marxist. As his experience and involvement grew, Nehru’s standing in the Congress party too made an upward move and he became general secretary of the party on two occasions. Nehru toured the provinces and the overwhelming poverty and degradation of the peasantry left a deep impression on his mind. It was from these experiences that ideas for addressing the problems arose. Hewas promoted as president of the Congress Party by Mahatma Gandhi who felt that the young Nehru would attract India’s youth. After his father's death in 1931, Jawaharlal moved into the inner councils of the Congress Party and became closer to the Mahatma. By then it was beginning to be clear that Nehru would be Mahatma Gandhi’s political heir, although Gandhi had made no such commitment. When provincial autonomy was introduced, elections and the Congress came to power in many of the provinces. At this time the Muslim League, under the leadership of Mohammed Ali Jinnah (who was to become the creator of Pakistan) had fared badly at the polls. The Congress, therefore, rejected Jinnah's plea forthe formation of coalition Congress-Muslim League governments in some of the provinces. Nehru is said to have had a strong say against the coalition. The subsequent fallout between the Congress and the Muslim League metamorphosed into a clash between the Hindus and the Muslims and ultimately led to the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan. Nehru had some differences with Mahatma Gandhi during the Second World War, but no major problems arose and the two continued working together. Two years after the end of the World War, India attained independence and Nehru became the first prime minister of independent India. Nehru imparted modern values and ways of thinking, which he adapted to Indian conditions. He was very keen on carrying India forward into the modern age of scientific discovery and technological development. At the same time, he made people aware of the necessity of social concern with the poor and the outcast. One of his remarkable achievements was reforming the Hindu civil code, enabling widows to have equal claims on property and inheritance. In the international scene too, Nehru was making his presence felt. Even during Nehru’s time, the problem of Kashmir was a sensitive issue between India and Pakistan. His efforts to settle the issue were fruitless. He had better success with Goa, where he strove to get the Portuguese to move out. When persuasion failed, he sent a group of unarmed Indians to march into Portuguese territory in a non-violent demonstration, in August 1955. The Portuguese opened fire on the demonstrators, killing nearly thirty, Nehru stayed his hand for six years. India was ultimately successful. As chairman of the planning commission, Nehru took a direct part in the preparation of India’s first three five-year development plans (1951/52–1965/66). Measures for economic and socio- cultural construction, developed and implemented under Nehru’s leadership, provided a foundation for the restructuring of the colonial-feudal order of Indian society. In foreign affairs, Nehru conducted a policy of “positive neutrality,” aimed at furthering the struggle for peace and international cooperation and against the threat of war, neocolonialism, and racism. He took part in formulating the “five principles of interstate relations” (panch shila) and was one of the leaders of the Bandung Conference of 1955.Nehru favored comprehensive development of Soviet-Indian relations and of friendship and cooperation between the Soviet Union and India, as well as the study and application of the Soviet experience in economic and cultural construction. He visited the USSR in 1955 and 1961.As a statesman, Nehru became a recognized national leader and entered history as the builder of a new India. He was an original thinker, a brilliant orator, and the author of major popular works on world and Indian history. Nehru’s world view, which reflected the complex and contradictory conditions of India’s history in the modern era, was an embodiment of the ideals of humanitarianism. As age caught on, Nehru’s health began to deteriorate. He suffered a stroke in 1963 and a debilitating attack in January 1964. He died a few months later, after he suffered a third and fatal stroke. He died on May 27, 1964. After him, Indira Gandhi served as the Prime Minister between 1966 and 1977 and again from 1980 to 1984. Her son, Rajiv Gandhi became the Prime MInister in 1984 and served up to 1989. On their death, the whole world bade them farewell with their moist eyes.Let us pay our humble obeisance to the lotus feet of that great man Pandit Nehru whom affectionately children call Chacha Nehru (Uncle Nehru) who has remained very dear and near to our heart!
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..Chetan Pandey .:
...युगपुरुष, आधुनिक भारत के निर्माता पंडित जवाहरलाल नेहरु को मेरा शत-शत नमन...
Vrunda Sakhi :
Chacha Nehru jindabad.