Bishwa Nath Singh
The ideals of Mahatma Gandhi are worth imbibing by all who are keen for selfless service to our motherland. They should be an eye opener for all those who are engaged to acquire power politics in the life of nation.
(Photo of Mahatma Gandhi)
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Bishwa Nath Singh :
Mahatma Gandhi's ideas and strategies of nonviolent civil disobedience was first applied during his South Africa days, initially appeared impractical to many educated Indians. In He had stated that civil disobedience is civil breach of unmo...ral statutory enactments, but should be carried out nonviolently by withdrawing cooperation with the corrupt state. Later on, many realized Gandhi's political potential when he used the Satyagraha during the Anti-Rowlatt Acts protests in Punjab. In 1920, under Gandhi's leadership, the Congress was reorganized and given a new constitution, whose goal was swaraj . Membership in the party was opened to anyone prepared to pay a token fee, and a hierarchy of committees--from district, to province, to all India was established and made responsible for discipline and control over the offing movement. During his first nationwide satyagraha, to resign from Government Service to refuse to pay taxes; and to forsake British titles and honors. The party was transformed from an elite organization to one of mass national appeal. Gandhi urged the people to boycott British education institutions, law courts, and products in favor of Swadeshi to resign from party was transformed from an elite organization to one of mass national appeal.His first nationwide Satyagraha was too late to influence the framing of the new Government of India Act of 1919, the magnitude of disorder resulting from the movement was unparalleled and presented a new challenge to foreign rule. Gandhi was forced to call off the campaign in 1922 because of atrocities committed against Police. However, the abortive campaign marked a milestone in India's political development. For his efforts, Gandhi was imprisoned until 1924. On his release from prison, he set up an Ashram at Vardha established a newspaper, and inaugurated a series of reforms aimed at the socially disadvantaged within Hindu society, the rural poor, and the Untouchables His popularity soared in Indian politics as he reached the hearts and minds of ordinary people, winning support for his causes as no one else had ever done before. By his personal charm and magnificent personality, his asceticism, his vegetarianism, his espousal of Hindu-Muslim unity, and his firm belief in Ahimsa and truth, he became idol of all Indians He believed firmly in sincerity ,simplicity, honesty & truth .He was again caste system. He had firm faith in his prayers.. For him, moral regeneration, social progress, and national freedom were inseparable.In those olden days. emerging leaders within the Congress--Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, Rajendra Prasad, C. Rajagopalachari, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Subhas Chandra Bose, and Jaya Prakash Narayan--accepted Gandhi's leadership in articulating nationalist aspirations but disagreed on strategies for wresting more concessions from the British. The Indian political spectrum was further broadened in the mid-1920s by the emergence of both moderate and militant parties, such as the Swaraj Party, the Mahasabha Party (literally, great council; an orthodox Hindu communal party), the Unionist Party, the Communist Party of India, and the Socialist Independence for India League. Regional political organizations also continued to represent the interests of non-Brahmans in Madras, Mahars in Maharashtra, and Sikhs in Punjab.The Congress, however, had kept itself aloof from competing in elections. As voices inside and outside the Congress became more loud, the British appointed a commission in 1927, under Sir John Simon, to recommend further measures in the constitutional devolution of power. The British failure to appoint an Indian member to the commission outraged the Congress and others, and, as a result, they boycotted it throughout India, carrying placards inscribed "Simon, Go Back." In 1929 the Congress responded by drafting its own constitution under the guidance of Pandit Motilal Nehru demanding full independence by 1930; the Congress went so far as to observe January 26, 1930, as the first anniversary of the first year of independence.Mahatma Gandhi reemerged from his long seclusion by undertaking his most inspired campaign, a march of about four hundred kilometers from his commune in Ahmadabad to Dandi, on the coast of Gujarat between March 12,1930 to April 6, 1930. At Dandi, in protest against extortionate British taxes on salt, he and thousands of followers illegally but symbolically made their own salt from sea water. Their defiance reflected India's determination to be free, despite the imprisonment of thousands of protesters. For the next five years, the Congress and government were locked in conflict and negotiations until what became the Government of India Act of 1935 could be hammered out. But by then, the rift between the Congress and the Muslim League had become unbridgeable as each pointed the finger at the other acrimoniously. The Muslim League disputed the claim by the Congress to represent all people of India, while the Congress disputed the Muslim League's claim to voice the aspirations of all Muslims.The 1935 act, the voluminous and final constitutional effort at governing British India, articulated three major goals: establishing a loose federal structure, achieving provincial autonomy, and safeguarding minority interests through separate electorates. The federal provisions, intended to unite princely states and British India at the center, were not implemented because of ambiguities in safeguarding the existing privileges of princes. In February 1937, however, provincial autonomy became a reality when elections were held; the Congress emerged as the dominant party with a clear majority in five provinces and held an upper hand in two, while the Muslim League performed poorly. He was against accepting any post after India got independence and very sad on implementation of two nation’s theories: India and Pakistan. He was deeply perturbed and shocked over flaring up of communal tensions soon after independence of India and preferred to remain n in those worst affected areas to pacify trouble-shooters and people at large. He had lived and died for our motherland. He was born on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar, Gujrat, India. He spent his life working for the cause of freeing India from the clutches of British rule, by using noble means and principles of non-violence and satyagrah. On 15 August 1947, he and his followers forced the British to leave India. Rightfully, he is called the father of the nation. He had studied law in England, then spent twenty years defending the rights of immigrants in South Africa. In 1914 he returned to India and became the leader of the Indian National Congress. Gandhi urged non-violence and civil disobedience as a means to independence from Great Britain, with public acts of defiance that landed him in jail several times. In 1947 he participated in the postwar negotiations that led to Indian independence. He was given the prefix "Mahatma" which means Great Soul by his admirers. However Gandhi himself was not too keen on the prefix. Gandhi was one of the leading Indian politicians of the Indian independence movement. However he was much more than a politician. He was a committed Vegetarian and was devoted to the principles of non-violence and pacifism. At the age of thirty six ,he had adopted the life of a Brahmacharya —Spiritual and Practical purity—largely associated with celibacy. He had placed great emphasis on his spiritual practices, prayer, meditation, fasting and observance of silence once a week. He was assassinated on January 30, 1948 It is said his last words were "Hey Ram" - "O God" that one can find engraved in epitaph of his memorial at Raj Ghat in New Delhi where he was cremated with full national honor. by a Hindu fundamentalist while going to attend his payer meeting in Birla House of New Delhi.
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MAHATMA GANDHI, THE GREAT SAINT, FATHER OF THE NATION, KO MERA NAMAN.
Jed Zimmerman :