Bishwa Nath Singh
Though,Bhagavad Gita comprises of Seventeen Chapters whereas the Eighteenth Chapter is a supplementary summarization of the topics discussed before. In every chapter of Bhagavad-gita, Lord Krishna stresses that devotional service unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead which is the ultimate goal of our life whereas the same point was summarized in the Eighteenth Chapter as the most confidential path of knowledge authored Bhagvad Gita by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada ,founder of ISKCON.
( Photo of Lord Krishna preaching Arjuna in the battle field of Kurukshetra)
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Bishwa Nath Singh :
In the first six chapters of Bhagvad Gita stress was given to devotional service: yoginam api sarvesam... "Of all yogis or transcendentalists, one who always thinks of Me within himself is best." In the next six chapters, pure devotional se...rvice and its nature and activity were discussed. In the third six chapters, knowledge, renunciation, the activities of material nature and transcendental nature, and devotional service were described. It was concluded that all acts should be performed in conjunction with the Supreme Lord, summarized by the words om tat sat, which indicate Lord Vishnu, the Supreme Person. In the third part of Bhagavad Gita, devotional service was established by the example of past acaryas and the Brahma-sutra, the Vedanta-sutra, which cites that devotional service is the ultimate purpose of life and nothing else. Certain impersonalists consider themselves monopolizers of the knowledge of Vedanta-sutra, but actually the Vedanta-sutra is meant for understanding devotional service, for the Lord Himself is the composer of the Vedanta-sutra, and He is its knower. That is described in the Fifteenth Chapter. In every scripture, every Veda, devotional service is the objective. That is explained in Bhagavad Gita. As in the Second Chapter a synopsis of the whole subject matter was described, similarly, in the Eighteenth Chapter also the summary of all instruction is given. The purpose of life is indicated to be renunciation and attainment of the transcendental position above the three material modes of nature. Arjuna wants to clarify the two distinct subject matters of Bhagavad Gita namely renunciation and the renounced order of life . Thus he is asking the meaning of these two words. Two words used in this verse to address the Supreme Lord—Hare Krishna and Krishna Nanadan--are significant. Hare Krishna is Krishna himself who happens to be the the master of all senses, who can always help us attain mental serenity.Warrior Arjun had requested Lord Krisna to summarize everything in such a way that he can remain an ardent devotee for ever. Yet he has some doubts, and doubts are always compared to demons. He therefore addresses Krishna as Krishna Nandan. Kesi was a most formidable demon who was killed by the Lord; now Arjuna is expecting Krishna to kill the demon of doubt that he had in his mind that detracts him from fighting war with Kaurav who are his cousins.
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Anil Kumar :
Thanks to you for such detailed analysis. But the chapter which deals with KARMA needed attention. Excuses.
Bishwa Nath Singh :
@ Anil Kumar Ji. I will throw light on it and will let you know soon.
Bishwa Nath Singh
One of my friend who is a well-known medical practitioner had asked me to incorporate more about Karma in my dispatch on the Srimad Bhagvat Gita which is,the holiest of holy book for all of us.
( Photo of Lord Krisna preaching Warrior Arjuna in the battle field of Kurukshetra)
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Bishwa Nath Singh :
If one turns pages of Srimad Bhagwat Gita ,he/she is bound to find it in a concise book form comprising of what Lord Krishna had preached to Warrior Arjuna in the battle field of Kurukshetra to clear confusion and misgiving arising out in ...minds of Arjuna before he could take war with Karauv- his cousins. It has eighteen chapters in all. The details of Karma ( action) is in the third chapter of this holy book. .Karma" in its simplest term is widely known as "Action" only. Any action that we do with our body & mind is termed as "Karma" but the word "Karma" has a much greater significance as per our Hindu Philosophy than just simple meaning as "Action". In our Hindu scriptures Karma is related to the origin of one's own body. Karmas of earlier birth become the basis of this birth & Karmas of this birth become the basis of his next birth & so on. This relation of Karmas to rebirth in Hindu Philosophy is the key thing which makes it different from doing just any action in life. The question is as how these Karmas are related to rebirth as per the Hindu Philosophy requires our cool attention.As per the Hindu Philosophy, any action that is done delivers some fruit or has a consequence. In simplest term, if any one works for eight hours in a firm, he/she expects his/her wages of eight hours at the end of his job. It may be given to him at the end of the job on that day, may accrue to his account weekly or monthly, but the worker expects that he /she shall get his/her salary after performing his/her job. So this expected wages or salary is the fruit of his eight hours of actions. Similarly any other Action or "Karma" done in life automatically has some fruit attached to it. In terms of "Karmas" done by a person, all the consequential fruits are determined by God himself. If one donates some money to a Charity or he/she feeds a poor man, what "Fruit" shall incur to that person who had fed for this good work done by him/her. In another example ,if some man beats a poor man or a man murders someone, then what "Fruit" shall incur to him for this ghastly act done by that person. In all such acts or Karmas done by all persons, the consequential "Fruits" are determined by God himself as per the divine laws & not by any human being. So by now one has seen that all "Karmas" or actions done byhim/her has a Fruit related to it & that Fruit is determined by God only. But how these Karmas become the basis of re-birth as per the Hindu Scriptures can be best explained as such. As per the Hindu Philosophy, any "Karma" done by a person, remains with that person, unless he/she has enjoyed the consequential Fruit arisen out of doing that Karma. For a good act done by him, he shall bear good result & enjoy it. Similarly for a bad act done by him, he shall bear bad result & shall have to bear punishment for it. Unless that person enjoys good or bad result/fruit arisen out of doing that Karma, it shall remain forever with that person & leave that person after that person has enjoyed the fruit arisen out of doing that Karma. Now whatever action/karma one performs with his body, mind or even speech, that Karma after getting finished, goes in to his reserved stock of Karmas i.e. it adds up to all the other accumulated karmas earlier done by him/her. This stock of Karmas (having its reservoir in that person's mind) is having all the Karmas done by that person in this life & also done by that person in earlier births taken by that person. At the death of a person he/she takes with him/her all that accumulated Karmas which contain Karmas done in this birth & also the Karmas from the previous births for which its fruit is yet to be enjoyed. So at the death of a person, out of these accumulated Karmas (actions)which that person carries, Divinity or God as per the divine law takes a handful of those Karmas which have begun to bear the fruits & a new body is made with the seeds of those fruits bearing Karmas. So basically any Karma done becomes the seed of the next birth. In Hindu Philosophy all these Karmas which become the basis of or the seeds of a new birth of a body, are called "Prarabdha" means "Fruit bearing actions" or "Fate" even. In the next birth, a person again does Karmas & these gets added to his earlier accumulated, unspent stock & so on this cycle goes on for a soul of taking birth after birth. So in this way, so long as the reserve stock of Karmas remains with that person, a part of it continues to be taken out of that reserve stock by the Divinity as "Prarabdha" or "Fruit bearing actions", for being enjoyed in one life-time of that person. A soul's perpetual journey from one birth to next birth goes on like that with the law of karma. This soul knows no liberation, so long as this stock of un-disposed off actions or karmas performed in number of lives of that person till his/her karmas are not completely exhausted. Bhagvad Gita is teachings of Lord Krishna imparted to Warrior Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra during Mahabhatat in Haryana State of India more than five thousand years ago.His teachings are still very much relevant today. Here is a verse drawn from Bhagvad Gita: ananya-cetah satatam,yo mam smarati nityasah,tasyaham sulabhah partha nitya-yuktasya yoginah" It translates in to English as "Lord Sri Krishna says: Whosoever, always & constantly remembers Me with undivided mind; by that person, I am easy to obtain, O Arjuna, because of his constant engagement in the devotional service to Me."
Let us join to pay our humble obeisance to the lotus feet of Lord Krishna and seek His bliss to give us passion and wisdom to follow Him in all walks of our life to make our life blissful and meaningful!
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Renu Gajra :
Ur note on Bhagvat Gita,the more one reads gets closer to Shri Krishna.Jai Shri Krushna
.Anil Kumar :
Bahut Bahut Dhanyabaad SiR.
Jo KarmaphaL se Rahit ho kaRta sada UpakaaR hai,
Wah KaRma karta Pahu'nchata Paramaatma ke DwaaR hai.