Bishwa Nath Singh
Let us have glimpse on the life of the fifth Guru of Sikhism Guru Arjan Dev for his great many accomplishments and martyrdom!
(Photo of Guru Arjan Dev-the fifth Guru of Sikhism)
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Bishwa Nath Singh
In this Picture, Guru Arjan Dev is seen dictating the Adi Granth to Bhai Gurdas.Guru Arjan Dev Ji is the fifth Guru of the Sikhs. He was born on April 15, 1563 at Goindwal Sahib Ji. He was the youngest son of Guru Ram Das Ji. He received G...urgaddi on August 31st, 1581. He was the first Guru to have been born a son of the Guru. Ahis mother was Bibi Bhani, the youngest daughter of Guru Amar Das. Bhani's husband, Jetha, was devoted to her father. The couple chose to live with the guru and so Arjun Dev was raised in his grandfather’s household. Amar Das appointed Jetha as the fourth guru and named him Raam Das. Arjun Dev had two older brothers, Prithi Chand and Maha Dev. The eldest aspired through trickery to become the next guru. However devotion and steadfast service earned Arjun Dev the succession and title of fifth guru. .He had firstly wedded Mata Ram (Dai) Devi, daughter of Bhai Chandan Dass Suri of village Maurh. Because of jealousies resulting in treachery, she expired without issue. After death of his first wife, he had wedded later on Ganga, daughter of Krishan Chand of Meo near Phillaur of Jalandhar. Mata Ganga also has difficulty with miscarriages. With the blessing of Baba Buddha the couple at last produce one son, Har Govind Though, several attempts were made on the infants life, but he survived who had later on succeeded his holy father. Arjun Dev worked beside his father, Guru Ram Das, who founded the spiritual compound, "Harmandir Sahib," or "Temple of God," and began excavation of the the manmade lake, "Amritsar," which means "immortal waters." After the death of Guru Raam Das, Guru Arjun Dev carried on the task begun by his father to complete construction of what is today commonly known as the Golden Temple and the moat like sarovar of sacred watersHe had distinction to be the head of Sikhism for a quarter of a century and accomplished many great things during his tenure. He completed the construction of Amritsar and founded other cities such as Taran Taran and Kartarpur. He constructed a Baoli at Lahore. His most important was the compilation of Adi Granth. He collected all the work of the first four Gurus and dictated it in the form of verses in 1604. It is, perhaps, the only script which still exists in the form first published a hand-written manuscript by the Guru. It and the Guru Granth Sahib which includes the writing of the later Gurus have managed to avoid the embellishments, additions and alterations that have plagued the original writing of other more ancient religious texts.He had organised the Masand system, a group of representatives who taught and spread the teachings of the Gurus and also collected the Dasvand, one-tenth of a Sikh's income in money, goods or service that Sikhs paid to support the building of Gurdwara Sahib, the all important Guru ka Langars -free communal kitchens originally intended to share with sense of love, respect and equality, still an important element today in any Gurdwara. and that stll continues . As another sign of equality in Sikh philosophy, the Guru Ji added the writings of several Muslim and Hindu saints, whose ideas corresponded to Sikh beliefs. With the passage of time, the Guru attracted a substantial following, therefore the Sikh community undertook a social-political character. In 1606, Emperor Jehangir, the Muslim ruler of India, summoned the Guru Ji to his court on the charge of blessing a rebellious relative of the Emperor's. Upon the Guru's refusal to embrace Islam to escape death, the fifth prophet of the Sikh religion was subject to inhumane torture. Guru Arjan Dev Ji was arrested, tortured and made to sit on hot iron plates at Lahore. He was martyred on May 30th, 1606 at Lahore by Emperor Jahangir. Thus, the martyrdom tradition of Sikhism began with the martyrdom of the Guru Ji himself. From this point forward, Sikhism began to form itself into a community of saint-soldiers.He completed the Sarovar of Nectar at Amritsar and built Sri Harmandir Sahib Ji, the centre of worship and religious assembly. He compiled Sri Adi Granth Ji, later called Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji and installed it at Sri Harmandir Sahib Ji in 1604. Nothing else but Shabad Kirtan is recited in the sanctum sanctorum of Sri Harmandir Sahib JiGuru Arjan Dev Ji constructed the holy (Sarovar) tank at Tarn Taran and founded the city of Kartarpur near Jalandhar. The city of Sri Hargobindpur on the banks of river Beas was founded by him to celebrate the birth of his son Hargobind Sahib Ji.Guru Arjan Dev Ji encouraged the Sikhs to contribute Daswandh (one tenth of the earnings) for community purposes. Guru Arjan Dev Ji was a great thinker, illustrious poet, a practical philosopher and a celebrated saint. He was the first martyr in the Sikh history. He practiced humility and forgiveness. He preached truth, contentment and contemplation. He organised the Sikhs into a community. After the brutal martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, his son Hargobind Sahib Ji was appointed the Sixth Guru of the Sikhs in line. Enduring five days of unrelenting torture, he became martyr at the hands of seventeenth century fundamentalist Muslim rulers who sought to put an end to the spread of Sikhism on May 30,1606. His martyrdom set an inspiring example of selflessness and steadfast courage in the face of overwhelming oppression. Let us join to pay our humble obeisance to His lotus feet and seek His bliss for well-being of all living-being of this universe!